The Sumerians: Their history, culture and character, Learn how and when to remove this template message, laboratory paper (blotting and filter), rolling paper, "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species", "These Vintage Threads Are 30,000 Years Old", CRS Report for Congress: Agriculture: A Glossary of Terms, Programs, and Laws, 2005 Edition - Order Code 97-905, "Pigments through the Ages - Renaissance and Baroque (1400-1600)", "Effect of processing flax in beef feedlot diets on performance, carcass characteristics, and trained sensory panel ratings", "Full Report (All Nutrients): 12220, Seeds, flaxseed per 100 g", "Flax and flaxseed oil: an ancient medicine & modern functional food", "Does ground flaxseed have more health benefits than whole flaxseed? Though flax has lost some of its value as a commercial fiber crop, flaxseed has grown in popularity as a health food. To grow well, flax as a crop needs water and a rich soil and frequent weeding.  Flax is often found growing just above the waterline in cranberry bogs. The flax plant produces the flax fibres used to make linen. Linen fibre derives from a plant, Linum usitatissimum L., which as a raw material is more usually known by the term flax.  It is also often used as feed for swine and poultry, and has also been used in horse concentrate and dog food. A combine harvester may either cut only the heads of the plants, or the whole plant. Linen is a bast fiber.  Sheep feeding on low quality forage are able to eat a large amount of linseed meal, up to 40% in one test, with positive consequences.  Whole flaxseeds are chemically stable, but ground flaxseed meal, because of oxidation, may go rancid when left exposed to air at room temperature in as little as one week. When dried sufficiently, a combine then harvests the seeds similar to wheat or oat harvesting.  If packed immediately without exposure to air and light, milled flaxseed is stable against excessive oxidation when stored for nine months at room temperature, and under warehouse conditions, for 20 months at ambient temperatures. Known as a couche, the flax cloth is used to hold the dough into shape while in the final rise, just before baking.  Laboratories are certified to test for the presence of 'Triffid' at a level of one seed in 10,000.. Common flax is the national flower of Belarus. Traditionally, the process involved many members of a family. Flax contains hundreds of times more lignans than other plant foods..  Evidence exists of a domesticated oilseed flax with increased seed-size from Tell Ramad in Syria and flax fabric fragments from Çatalhöyük in Turkey by circa 9,000 years ago. Flax, also known as common flax or linseed, is a flowering plant, Linum usitatissimum, in the family Linaceae.  The plants called "flax" in New Zealand are, by contrast, members of the genus Phormium. , Flax straw left over from the harvesting of oilseed is not very nutritious; it is tough and indigestible, and is not recommended to use as ruminant fodder, although it may be used as bedding or baled as windbreaks.. The fibers must then be loosened from the stalk. The plants, which are grown for their long, luxurious bast fiber, are pulled up by the roots in order to maximize the length of the fiber. For example, a yarn having a size of 1 lea will give 300 yards per pound.  Refrigeration and storage in sealed containers will keep ground flaxseed meal for a longer period before it turns rancid. PHI Learning Private Limited, New Delhi, p. 76, Wisseman S. (2013) "Ancient Technologies and Archaeological Materials". , Flax was cultivated extensively in ancient Egypt, where the temple walls had paintings of flowering flax, and mummies were embalmed using linen. Flax fibers can usually be identified by their “nodes” which add to the flexibility and texture of the fabric.  In the Ulster Museum, Belfast there is the mummy of 'Takabuti' the daughter of a priest of Amun, who died 2,500 years ago. The mature plant can also be cut with mowing equipment, similar to hay harvesting, and raked into windrows. Flax culture, from flower to fabric by Mavis Atton - a book about growing and processing flax in Ontario. These textiles can then be bleached, dyed, printed on, or finished with a number of treatments or coatings.. After harvesting the flax plant, it is time to extract the fiber. Formed into windrows from the harvesting process, the straw often clogs up tillage and planting equipment. Natural retting methods take place in tanks and pools, or directly in the fields.  Most types of these basic varieties have similar nutritional characteristics and equal numbers of short-chain omega-3 fatty acids. ... #151952796 - Flax seeds and flax oil. The cross-section of the linen fiber is made up of irregular polygonal shapes which contribute to the coarse texture of the fabric.. The bases of the plants begin to turn yellow. After harvesting, the plants are dried, and the seeds are removed through a mechanized process called “rippling” (threshing) and winnowing. Additionally, flax fibers are naturally smooth and straight. In September 2009, Canadian flax exports reportedly had been contaminated by a deregistered genetically modified cultivar called 'Triffid' that had food and feed safety approval in Canada and the U.S., however, Canadian growers and the Flax Council of Canada raised concerns about the marketability of this cultivar in Europe where a zero tolerance policy exists regarding unapproved genetically modified organisms. If the water temperature is kept at 80 °F (27 °C), the retting process under these conditions takes 4 or 5 days. At this stage, many new raw materials are sourced, as we purify the longest flax fiber for further use. , Linen was also an important product in the American colonies, where it was brought over with the first settlers and became the most commonly used fabric and a valuable asset for colonial households. Species of plant used as a food and fibre crop, Barber E. (1991) "Prehistoric Textiles: The Development of Cloth in the Neolithic and Bronze Ages with Special Reference to the Aegean". This is a process which uses bacteria to decompose the pectin that binds the fibers together. This second part is performed by a refining machine. University of Minnesota, 2003, "Profiles of 15 of the world's major plant and animal fibres", "Linen Most Useful: Perspectives on Structure, Chemistry, and Enzymes for Retting Flax", Flax and Linen Textiles in the Mycenaean palatial economy, "Flax to Fabric: The Story of Irish Linen", "The Development of Textile Technology: Inside the TextilTechnikum (Textile Technology Center) in Monforts Quartier, Mönchengladbach", "Background history of Linen from the flax in the field to finished linen cloth", "What Is Linen? Although it may increase the omega-3 content in eggs and meat, it is also an inferior and potentially toxic feed for poultry, although it can be used in small amounts. It is considered an inferior protein supplement for swine because of its fibre, the vitamin antagonist, the high omega-3 content and its low lysine content, and can only be used in small amounts in the feed. [The magic of linen : flax seed to woven cloth by, Heinrich Some thoughts for the future of fibre flax: Long ago, before cotton was king, different regions had their own varieties of flax … Then ridges are formed in the couche to keep the dough from spreading. Today, linen is usually an expensive textile produced in relatively small quantities. The stems are then pulled through "hackles", which act like combs to remove the straw and some shorter fibers out of the long fiber. The amount of weeds in the straw affects its marketability, and this, coupled with market prices, determines whether the farmer chooses to harvest the flax straw.  The Sumerian poem of the courtship of Inanna mentions flax and linen.. Fine white linen is also worn by angels in the New Testament (Revelation 15:6). It is an edible oil obtained by expeller pressing and sometimes followed by solvent extraction. This form of retting also produces quite an odor. Heuzé V., Tran G., Nozière P., Lessire M., Lebas F., 2017. The specific epithet, usitatissimum, means "most useful".. As a textile, linen is strong, cool with unsurpassed moisture wicking and ventilation.  Flaxseeds are especially rich in thiamine, magnesium, potassium, and phosphorus (DVs above 90%). 'Enzymatic' retting of flax has been researched as a technique to engineer fibers with specific properties. Flax is grown on the Canadian prairies for linseed oil, which is used as a drying oil in paints and varnishes and in products such as linoleum and printing inks. , The discovery of dyed flax fibers in a cave in Southeastern Europe (present-day Georgia) dated to 36,000 years ago suggests that ancient people used wild flax fibers to create linen-like fabrics from an early date. , Raw, immature linseeds contain an amount of cyanogenic compounds and can be dangerous for monogastric animals such as horses or rabbits. It might also act as a substitute to tallow in increasing marbling. The linen industry was increasingly critical in the economies of Europe in the 18th and 19th centuries. In ancient Egypt, linen was used for mummification and for burial shrouds.  Many other products, including home furnishing items, are also often made from linen. A characteristic often associated with linen yarn is the presence of slubs, or small, soft, irregular lumps, which occur randomly along its length. It has been fed as supplement to water buffaloes in India, and provided a better diet than forage alone, but not as good as when substituted with soy meal. As a result of alternating rain and the sun, an enzymatic action degrades the pectins which bind fibers to the straw. Separating the usable flax fibers from other components requires pulling the stems through a hackle and/or beating the plants to break them. To remove this, the flax is "broken", the straw is broken up into small, short bits, while the actual fiber is left unharmed. The soils most suitable for flax, besides the alluvial kind, are deep loams containing a large proportion of organic matter. At one time it was the country's greatest export item and Russia produced about 80% of the world's fiber flax crop. After harvesting the flax plant, it is time to extract the fiber. In Europe, however, linen is usually the only fabric support available in art shops; in the UK both are freely available with cotton being cheaper. A flax spinning mill was built in Albany the next year to manufacture salmon net, twine, and shoelaces.  First-century Romano-Jewish historian Josephus suggested that the reason for the prohibition was to keep the laity from wearing the official garb of the priests,[full citation needed] while medieval Sephardic Jewish philosopher Maimonides thought that the reason was because heathen priests wore such mixed garments. Classifications & Analysis of Textiles: A Handbook by Karen L. LaBat, Ph.D. and Carol J. Salusso, Ph.A. The symbol is NeL. Three phenolic glucosides — secoisolariciresinol diglucoside, p-coumaric acid glucoside, and ferulic acid glucoside — are present in commercial breads containing flaxseed.  Eventually, Flanders became the major center of the European linen industry in the Middle Ages. Flax also represents Northern Ireland on the badge of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom and on various logos associated with it. The meal is an adequate and traditional source of protein for rabbits at 8-10%. Scutching removes the woody portion of the stalks by crushing them between two metal rollers, so that the parts of the stalk can be separated. In the past, linen was also used for books (the only surviving example of which is the Liber Linteus). The primary source of Omega-3 fatty acids. At this stage, many new raw materials are sourced, as we purify the longest flax fiber for further use. Linen (/ˈlɪnən/) is a textile made from the fibers of the flax plant. Use of the crop steadily spread, reaching as far as Switzerland and Germany by 5,000 years ago. After the fibers have been separated and processed, they are typically spun into yarns and woven or knit into linen textiles. Many products can be made with linen: aprons, bags, towels (swimming, bath, beach, body and wash towels), napkins, bed linens, tablecloths, runners, chair covers, and men's and women's wear. Linen pulling: Step 3: Pulling When flax linen is harvested it is pulled, rather than cut in order to obtain the longest fiber. Flax fiber is soft, lustrous, and flexible; bundles of fiber have the appearance of blonde hair, hence the description "flaxen" hair. The fibers are removed and the other parts such as linseed, shive, and tow are set aside for other uses. The trade spread throughout Germany by the 9th century and spread to Flanders and Brabant by the 11th century. 8. A fabric woven from the bast fibers of the Flax plant, especially from the Linen usitatissimum plant native to the Mediterranean region and the Atlantic coast of Europe.  Evidence suggests that flax may have been grown and sold in Southern England in the 12th and 13th centuries. Then the flax is scutched (beaten against a board with a blunt wooden knife). Flax Plant Fiber Traits.  To the southwest, in ancient Mesopotamia, flax was domesticated and linen was produced. Relevance. Approximately 70% of linen production in the 1990s was for apparel textiles, whereas in the 1970s only about 5% was used for fashion fabrics. This is a specific length therefore an indirect measurement of the fineness of the linen, i.e., the number of length units per unit mass. The direct result of his good work was the establishment, under statute, of the Board of Trustees of the Linen Manufacturers of Ireland in the year 1711. This can be performed by three machines: one for threshing out the seed, one for breaking and separating the straw (stem) from the fiber, and one for further separating the broken straw and matter from the fiber. When wrapped around a finger, the inner woody part springs away from the fibers. The breaking breaks up the straw. 8. , The best grades are used for fabrics such as damasks, lace, and sheeting. Because of its strength when wet, Irish linen is a very popular wrap of pool/billiard cues, due to its absorption of sweat from hands. This '19th Century Daily Living Series' video demonstrates the tools, techniques and processes for making linen from flax. Orientation. The standard measure of bulk linen yarn is the "lea", which is the number of yards in a pound of linen divided by 300. The leaves are glaucous green, slender lanceolate, 20–40 mm long, and 3 mm broad. Next, a series of steps free the linen fiber from the boon (unwanted plant material). Also, when the roots are left intact the plant withstands being stooked better for a period of time. Its fibers derive from the flax plant, also called Linum Usitatissimum. Vroeger werd het vlas eerst op het veld gedroogd. If the flax straw is not harvested, typically, it is burned, since the stalks are quite tough and decompose slowly (i.e., not in a single season). Heavy clays are unsuitable, as are soils of a gravelly or dry sandy nature. There are many who use the names flax and linen almost interchangeably whereas, they are two separate things though linen is a product obtained from the stem of the flax plant. This process normally takes a month or more, but is generally considered to provide the highest quality flax fibers, and it produces the least pollution. The rubber belts then pull the whole plant out of the ground with the roots so the whole length of the plant fiber can be used. Flax, plant of the family Linaceae, cultivated both for its fiber, from which linen is made, and for its nutritious seeds, from which linseed oil is obtained. The flax plant turned over and is gripped by rubber belts roughly 20–25 cm (8-10") above ground, to avoid getting grasses and weeds in the flax. For example, a linen cap worn by Emperor Charles V was carefully preserved after his death in 1558.. Because of these properties, linen is comfortable to wear in hot weather and is valued for use in garments. The couche is heavily dusted with flour which is rubbed into the pores of the fabric. High-quality linen fabrics are now produced in the United States for the upholstery market and in Belgium. , Fragments of straw, seeds, fibers, yarns, and various types of fabrics, including linen samples, dating to about 8,000 BC have been found in Swiss lake dwellings.  Phoenicians traded Egyptian linen throughout the Mediterranean and the Romans used it for their sails. Flax is an annual herb and is grown as a food and also a fiber crop. The word linen is of West Germanic origin and cognate to the Latin name for the flax plant, linum, and the earlier Greek λινόν (linón). From seed-planting, it is ready to Linen is a natural cellulose fiber and comes from the inside of the stalks of the flax plant. Linen's poor elasticity means that it easily wrinkles. Vector Illustration . A Bronze Age factory dedicated to flax processing was discovered in Euonymeia, Greece. It consists of placing the flax in a pool of water which will not evaporate. It can withstand high temperatures, and has only moderate initial shrinkage.. The Jewish Primer, by Shmuel Himelstein. Linen is a fabric made wholly from the fibers of the flax plant. Several grades were produced including coarse lockram. The significant cost of linen derives not only from the difficulty of working with the thread but also because the flax plant itself requires a great deal of attention.  Compared to oilseed meal from crucifers it measures as having lower nutrient values, however, good results are obtained in cattle, perhaps due to the mucilage, which may aid in slowing digestion and thus allowing more time to absorb nutrients. This is the number of 840 yard lengths in a pound. Farming flax requires few fertilizers or pesticides. Harvesting Linen Flax. (2003) "The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History, Volume 1" Oxford University Press, p.303. Feedipedia, a programme by INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. To generate the longest possible fibers, flax is either hand-harvested by pulling up the entire plant or stalks are cut very close to the root. Grow a little linen today and keep this endangered natural fiber from extinction. Introduction. The harvest season begins about one month after the flax begins blooming. Linen is relatively easy to take care of, since it resists dirt and stains, has no lint or pilling tendency, and can be dry-cleaned, machine-washed, or steamed. Flax is the emblem of Northern Ireland and displayed by the Northern Ireland Assembly. Flax fibers vary in length from about 25 to 150 mm (1 to 6 in) and average 12–16 micrometers in diameter.  Egyptian priests wore only linen, as flax was considered a symbol of purity. But linen is in danger. Flax fibers vary in length from about 25 to 150 mm (1 to 6 in) and average 12–16 micrometers in diameter. Georank. , By the Middle Ages, there was a thriving trade in German flax and linen. The quality of the finished linen product is often dependent upon growing conditions and harvesting techniques. At this point, straw, or coarse outer stem (cortex and epidermis), is still remaining. In addition to referring to the plant itself, the word "flax" may refer to the unspun fibers of the flax plant. Dressing consists of three steps: breaking, scutching, and heckling. Before the flax fibers can be spun into linen, they must be separated from the rest of the stalk. To obtain the fibers, the flax plants are harvested, dried, retted, crushed, then washed and cleaned. Linnen (ook wel met de oude term lijnwaad aangeduid) is een soort textiel dat gemaakt wordt uit vlas.Zowel de textielvezel als het uiteindelijke textiel wordt aangeduid als linnen.. Na het trekken (oogsten) wordt het vlas gedroogd. It is a magic plant - it gives us flax seeds, oil, straw and fiber that produces strong textile. Linen is a bast fiber. Textiles made from flax are known in Western countries as linen, and are traditionally used for bed sheets, underclothes, and table linen. Flax is also called Linen.  Another disadvantage of the meal and seed is that it contains a vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) antagonist, and may require this vitamin be supplemented, especially in chickens, and furthermore linseeds contain 2-7% of mucilage (fibre), which may be beneficial in humans and cattle, but cannot be digested by non-ruminants and can be detrimental to young animals, unless possibly treated with enzymes. This wear can show up in collars, hems, and any area that is iron creased during laundering. Difficulty— Easy. The Lower Rhine was a center of linen making in the Middle Ages. Proverbs 31:22 says, "She makes coverings for her bed; she is clothed in fine linen and purple."  Flaxseed oil contains 53% 18:3 omega-3 fatty acids (mostly ALA) and 13% 18:2 omega-6 fatty acids. In fact, the flax from which linen comes could hardly be more different than our hefty, clump-forming phormiums. An alternate production method is known as “cottonizing” which is quicker and requires less equipment.  The Living Linen Project was set up in 1995 as an oral archive of the knowledge of the Irish linen industry, which was at that time still available within a nucleus of people who formerly worked in the industry in Ulster. This is a Latin expression and means “most useful”. In 1923, the German city Bielefeld issued banknotes printed on linen. Over the past 30 years the end use for linen has changed dramatically. The term "linens" refers to lightweight undergarments such as shirts, chemises, waist-shirts, lingerie (a cognate with linen), and detachable shirt collars and cuffs, all of which were historically made almost exclusively out of linen. A beautiful example of linen fabric. Flax grown for seed is allowed to mature until the seed capsules are yellow and just starting to split; it is then harvested in various ways. It can be retted in a pond, stream, field, or tank. GRN 000280", "Grow and Harvest Flax - Materials Matter 2016", "Flax (linseed) production in 2018; Crops/Regions/World List/Production Quantity (from pick lists)", "The last straw: nine ways to handle flax straw", "Flax growers try to flush Triffid from system", "Sampling and Testing Protocol for Canadian Flaxseed Exported to the European Union", "Canada moves to revive flax exports after GMO flap", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Flax&oldid=992138940, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles needing additional references from May 2020, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 3 December 2020, at 18:28. Pond-retted flax is traditionally considered of lower quality, possibly because the product can become dirty, and is easily over-retted, damaging the fiber. The first step in this process is retting, which is the process of rotting away the inner stalk, leaving the outer parts intact. Check out our flax linen plant selection for the very best in unique or custom, handmade pieces from our shops. 19:19. lining.  Like many common foods, flax contains small amounts of cyanogenic glycoside, which is nontoxic when consumed in typical amounts, but may be toxic when consumed in large quantities as with staple foods such as cassava. [full citation needed] Others explain that it is because God often forbids mixtures of disparate kinds, not designed by God to be compatible in a certain way, with mixing animal and vegetable fibers being similar to having two different types of plowing animals yoked together; also, such commands serve both a practical as well as allegorical purpose, perhaps here preventing a priestly garment that would cause discomfort (or excessive sweat) in a hot climate. , Linen continued to be valued for garments in the 16th century and beyond. Moreover, flax fibers are used to make linen. Linen is more biodegradable than cotton.. Flax fiber is a raw material used in the high-quality paper industry for the use of printed banknotes, laboratory paper (blotting and filter), rolling paper for cigarettes, and tea bags.. Flax processing is divided into two parts: the first part is generally done by the farmer, to bring the flax fiber into a fit state for general or common purposes. It generally takes place in a shallow pool which will warm up dramatically in the sun; the process may take from a few days to a few weeks. This generally takes two or three weeks longer than pond retting, but the end product is less likely to be dirty, does not smell as bad, and because the water is cooler, is less likely to be over-retted. Linen was used in ancient civilizations including Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt, and linen is mentioned in the Bible. They brought improved methods for linen production with them, contributing to the growth of the linen industry in Ireland in particular.  Although the linen industry was already established in Ulster, Louis Crommelin found scope for improvement in weaving, and his efforts were so successful that he was appointed by the Government to develop the industry over a much wider range than the small confines of Lisburn and its surroundings. There is a long history of the production of linen in Ireland. The plant species is known only as a cultivated plant, and ap… Similar Images . Linen should not be dried too much by tumble drying, and it is much easier to iron when damp. Description. A 100-gram portion of ground flaxseed supplies about 534 calories (2,230 kJ), 41 g of fat, 28 g of fiber, and 20 g of protein. Its long fibres are primarily used to produce linen yarn. Everything You Need to Know About Using and Caring for Linen", "How quickly do fashion materials biodegrade? The fibers of Linum usitatissimum , grown to make linen and related textiles. Pond retting is the fastest. In England and then in Germany, industrialization and machine production replaced manual work and production moved from the home to new factories. Flax is grown in many parts of the world, but top quality flax is primarily grown in Western European countries and Ukraine. This evidence of this touchy technology comes from Late Neolithic Alpine lake dwellings beginning about 5,700 years ago--the same types of villages where Otzi the Iceman is believed to have been born and …  Through the 1830s, most farmers in the northern United States continued to grow flax for linen to be used for the family's clothing.  It was used mainly by the wealthier class of the society, including priests.  Among them was Louis Crommelin, a leader who was appointed overseer of the royal linen manufacture of Ireland. It is primarily grown for its seeds and also for its fiber. Soil pH– Neutral Flax belongs to the family Linaceae; its botanical name is Linum Usitatissimum (Flax).  Egyptian mummies were wrapped in linen as a symbol of light and purity, and as a display of wealth. 7. The plant species is known only as a cultivated plant, and appears to have been domesticated just once from the wild species Linum bienne, called pale flax. This is the number of 1,000 m lengths per kilogram.  Ten grams of flaxseed contains one gram of water-soluble fiber (which lowers blood cholesterol) and three grams of insoluble fiber (which helps prevent constipation). Linen textile is born from a flax plant which has a beautiful modest blue flower. Technically, linen is a vegetable. Princeton University Press, p.12, Cullis C. (2007) "Oilseeds" Springer, p. 275, Sekhri S. (2011) "Textbook of Fabric Science: Fundamentals to Finishing". For other uses, see. Routledge, p. 124, Buchanan R. (2012) "A Weaver's Garden: Growing Plants for Natural Dyes and Fibers".  One study found that feeding flax seeds may increase omega-3 content in beef, while another found no differences. Sort by : Relevance. 7. Scum collects at the top, and an odor is given off the same as in pond retting. The inner layer of fine composite cloth garments (as for example dress jackets) was traditionally made of linen, hence the word lining.. THE FLAX PLANT. , In December 2006, the General Assembly of the United Nations proclaimed 2009 to be the International Year of Natural Fibres in order to raise people's awareness of linen and other natural fibers. Linen, a specially selected variety of the flax plant, grown for its long, unbranched stocks, is harvested 100 days after planting, before the seeds are fully ripe. Its survival as a plant is threatened by industrial homogenization. This is not an issue in meal cake due to the processing temperature during oil extraction.
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