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Successive evaluations had <>/XObject<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 960 540] /Contents 27 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 3>> POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT Environment. 7. endobj Population policy may be single purpose like reducing crude birth rate by 20 per 1000 or it could be multifaceted like Population Policies formulated to address the unmet needs for contraception, health care infrastructure, and health personnel, and to provide integrated service … <> @Co*�mH�>�v�v��fqtJÈ����B�G�Iq��f�.������_A�� [��:��I ��uv,����D��U�����LM�X�\ۋ��k�):l�3� ~ �Hr1���苂` �n���ƍ� )e-��FZ�K���9 ��+�A�w�}� �Ɲ #L�I{>�9= @�9�۬{�=}{�ؼk��)Hf! We haven't found any reviews in the usual places. �XG�s-(䖏HĽ&�{!q]=�PQA�ѿ���R\�h?L�^�s{b�]J���U,j�D� endstream 17 0 obj <> The policy aspired toachieve reductions in fertility (four children per woman by 2000), the proportion of early marriages, the population growth rate, and infant mortalityby expand ing coverage of family planning (FP) services and family life education across the country. Blog. Population Policy for National Development V Foreword The Kenya government has since independence recognised that population management is key in realization of sustained socio-economic development. /XObject <> The World Population Policies Database, last updated in 2015, provides comprehensive and up-to-date information on the population policy situation and trends for all Member States and non-member States of the United Nations. High […] endobj The National Health Policy of 1983 emphasized the need for securing the small family norm through voluntary efforts and moving towards the goal of population stabilization. 1 0 obj There’s a debate over whether or not the policy worked. In the second part, I will develop an extended Solow model combining the dependency ratio and the classical Solow model and check analytically what this tells us. The first is the policy organ which comprises the Council of Ministers (COM), the National Population Council (NPC), the Regional Population Council (RPC) and the Zonal Population Council (ZPC). "���#kx���l����T ��yQH�pu,*\|�%��~�hja���,늆���0ʹ�S0�l���* 2This intellectual attitude is partly inspired by the success of population policies put in place between 1960 and 1980, at that time in the form of family-planning programs (in 1960 the global population was three billion people). Nov. 21, 2020. 26 0 obj endobj National Population Policy recognizes that in addition to fundamentals like infrastructure, energy, ICT and telecommunication, Uganda needs to pay attention to its human capital development if it is going to benefit from its demographic dividend. %���� Gratitude in the workplace: How gratitude can improve your well-being and relationships cN7��۷�,J|��^`/+�)�����D���Ko �h즭T�BZ�J��m����۠��X� The policy will provide a framework for enhancing prioritization, coordination, and implementation of programmes for addressing population and development challenges at national and district levels. Key Facts and Information about France's Pronatalist Population Policy Contents. ��� ;=� �$�W6�U����u�m����FFF}_{����r6��3��5� l���37hkkeBF2� @�p.�, �nV��]H(��:kr�9����Q��T��6����D�p��`���]XU)2=�x�� ��1�q��0��zw>f$��\=Em����Hk0ܠ�`�#Oz2�?�! endobj stream <> endobj Nov. 21, 2020. Restrictive Population Policies (Anti-Natalist ) Seek to reduce the rate of natural increase Example: –China’s One Child policy Unintended consequences: increased abortion rate, high rate of orphaned girls (many opted by U.S. & Canada) –India Mass Sterilization … India is a case in point, while China is an exam-ple of a country where the government de-nied for a long time, mainly for ideologi- population-control-policies have not only on total population growth but also 6. on the distribution of population. population policy is to assist RMCs to implement their population policies and programs, in pursuit of the attainment of a balance b e t w e e n population growth and economic growth. 19 0 obj endobj <> PREFACE . In view of the current population features, trends, and chal-lenges facing the continent, the main goal of the Bank’s current population policy is to assist RMCs to implement their population policies and programs, in pursuit of the attainment of a balance b e t w e e n population … Medium Term :effective implementation of inter-sector strategies to substantially reduce the TFRby 2010. <> stream Successes & Failures of the Policy: Successes of the Policy: Failuresllimitations of the policy: Singapore's population is projected to rise to Purely monetary policies are unlikely to work 5.4 million by 2025. Improved living C standards, social stability of the nation, conservation of the natural environment and the stability of our democratic system will in no small measure be influenced by the nature of growth of Jamaica's population. 15 0 obj France Population Policy - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. ��q� c����n,��+&-)Tu�qv�;�qD��C^�4EV��7��H�����!���hvc_�EiV�_��ӧ�T�t�ֽ�K�W]w|l^� F? %PDF-1.4 <> f��_q����s��O�r���o��Y������?��O������=�^��~V{�}��i,�>t����g~p��|Ց�$EɿAs�����d�^�+�QL+�s0��X�ĄF��U|���3�Si��/K������:��w5��^���A���o�}��J���>��~ϰk�Q1�����}��a, ̇�l����y�?�y7N�.y;1�ġ��ݶOa&t��qQ^�x�S�wrv�E��p.�~f�\!Q>�,�̘��[���9�fÐ7,��b�*׬�ϛ�)ص���'߅g��1V��C���[�>���9�Ľ�A�c+ ��F(.p� T�� ���M�i�jW�٘I�Xs����!���A��I)&�LǷ�'�S��s7BYa��շ��M}�� I��-�nt�?3��v0� �9�'f��/x��o�/��lM)q@K!E� �����ʂƐ7��@p� �A�0��>�'��&oB_x��jgT2��$7�HY���K=5&f� `kP� ���1X��F�$�7�v@Z�K1��o��TOb=RP��L�����l؏�E��!\�3��6 �ze�] Dq��/Y�r��� ���O����>-�b�E6a�2siab�!C+-�W� �LϹ�5���Ȉ8/>�y�?yE��S� �}�Rg�����;��ŋzW��s���6P>@�.p8|N�� Q���L���pT{���J���XE�u���4n>a��>�A�H8і(�2��wqA�U�G>���l�����^�G�w��g)��9$ �8�����}�Ld.���6�;���C]���9d) 3��g�1��'�u��#���U7�Lj���+�S�la!w�=m�#פF�8i�٣ŨRV1.�����a3�����AQ�v��V*�����`:B��2{�}Ÿ�N ����`��Z_���+�Xh�}�����H�g��"���T�~ۅ�w�]�t��M��͂#7�α�]�a���dz͡��JD�,����\�1�����u�����E����ArGV�+Dk�v��%�X�[6��vy Y��%� �}�$��&��"�Y�V�Ͽ�Xxu�����`~�E� e;У�*�$6��F���8|6�R���Dl�)pl�7r����Pݸ�u��/^�(�W���b3�( �����M�|x�»��@�$k��h;i8���YJALB Tɨ�,4?�1�ҤB? )8��b?5WH��$7C��zl*�d�tLa�(�N5c���:���r��$��Z�������^@�Y���]�ot�6z��rq+z�8��/�.o����obP���e}w3=_ T�1���BO�ɛ�0ks�Y{���~�(�ݯ��A]]W�>��g�\cv�[�����'�dzO�v[J�5[�*�scP��~Hay�w��ΰ��)��Q��R0 ���i: [p��=)�_Ȇք <> endobj 1000 live births … <>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/Annots[ 25 0 R] /MediaBox[ 0 0 960 540] /Contents 17 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 1>> 20 0 obj <> It also explores the way forward and future prospects for population policies over the next decades. <> This policy has for its major goal the harmonization of the rate of population growth and the capacity of the country for the development and rational utilization of natural resources thereby 5 Population & Housing Census, Preliminary Results- July 2011. 0 Reviews. Rather than simply equating population policy with family planning, the new thinking is that population growth should be stabilised - and development enhanced - by attacking some of the roots of the problem: by improving women's access to education, health care, and economic and political decisions. The official adoption of the National Population Policy is an important aspect of this all round exercise. What people are saying - Write a review. PREFACE . Contents. endobj The World Population Policies Database provides comprehensive and up-to-date information on the population policy situation and trends for 197 countries, including all Member States, Observer States 1: RATIONALE . R. 4 Population & Housing Census, Preliminary Results- July 2011. 5 Population & Housing Census, Preliminary Results- July 2011. )��� Es�E�"m ��nTW���VY٤ߙ���cժ|yQ$j(��3<ɪ">�a�0�x�[�&k�Y�Bl�3���U����*'[��o���0`w� Otherwise, birth rates could remain unchanged, and world population would grow to 11 billion. 18 0 obj The population target of 1.2 million by 2000 has been reached; it is estimated the policy prevented 200-300 million births The total fertility rate decreased from 2.9 in 1979 to 1.7 in 2004 (1.3 in urban areas and 2.0 in rural areas) Question: what is the counterfactual? 9: Implementation 7. There’s a debate over whether or not the policy worked. 7 0 obj g� P�_���. What people are saying - Write a review. Our population policy takes into account the recommendations of the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development held in Cairo in 1994. stream <> 1 0 obj The official adoption of the National Population Policy is an important aspect of this all round exercise. National Economic Planning Commission, Government of Zimbabwe, 1998 - South Africa - 76 pages. 4. endobj But considering the present eplacement . 23 0 obj This policy has for its major goal the harmonization of the rate of population growth and the capacity of the country for the development and rational utilization of natural resources thereby creating conditions conductive to the improvement of the level of welfare of the population. Population Policy and Demographic Analysis. <> 6 Population Projection of Bangladesh: BBS, 2007. 3 0 obj <> What people are saying - Write a review. 13 0 obj endobj �����d�s������P�~�s�I@��O]�X&��nݮ�@�[XY�j��O[1Z)�R�0&͆SBk���s�wĿ��]|�wO� ���u�%R1/X���r ��5�KX.X��+G�@�X�)�?�{��"×��l�s� ۩�O���*�?ro��I_̚�v���IE����Fm&�R���~��/��5�,�4Qn�*��XԞ���"�|���|�� ֽXS3ϰ�s|S�ݤ��#=86�ޟ��x�Z��A��)���Q���i4H��qI��8}���q Population Policy of India! Organisational Structure 5. 11 0 obj PREFACE . A landmark in the population policy of the country was the draft statement of Population Policy, issued in the Parliament in 1976, expressing the government’s determination to control population growth. >-�n�1�3c���T�eڪ*S��vU�����VP&����EG�4��L(u���NԻ ����6ԦS���wZ�C*��.�D$��� �Voy�;�Tn� <> <> We conclude that population control policies seem to be the factor that best accounts for this commonality. population-control-policies have not only on total population growth but also 6. on the distribution of population. <> In the second part, I will develop an extended Solow model combining the dependency ratio and the classical Solow model and check analytically what this tells us. National Economic Planning Commission, Government of Zimbabwe, 1998 - South Africa - 76 pages. The Secretary‐General noted that the successes and failures of over 20 years of experience in population policy implementation and programme activity had taught many lessons. ADVERTISEMENTS: This article provides an overview on National Population Policy (NPP) 2000:- 1. A population policy is a policy that a country engages in in order to get its population to a level that it feels is optimal for it. Objectives of National Population Policy (NPP) 2000 2. 5 0 obj 1: RATIONALE . Population policies in Brazil A population policy is a plan to manage or control some aspects of a country’s population. We haven't found any reviews in the usual places. endobj <> �A�r�f[ ��ɿ֩������R�T\1z�-[&�����R���K�_T����XQY��*-�b�2�ؼ�oTI��4�ң�[�D#/��3�^�ۣ�7"���^F���v�\�N:&LAp~`�+���M:�@�T���c�:��6,6�q�{u� ��F�r�i����.���@K��_]w*�qTi?UNJ�h�Yi 22 0 obj endobj <> A landmark in the population policy of the country was the draft statement of Population Policy, issued in the Parliament in 1976, expressing the government’s determination to control population growth. 6 Population Projection of Bangladesh: BBS, 2007. <> Population policy PRAVIN VISARIA INDIA, the second most populous country of the world, with more than a billion persons by 11 May 2000 (according to preliminary results of the 2001 Census, India counted 1.027 billion people on 1 March 2001), was the first to initiate a government policy of promoting a family planning programme in 1952. Policy on Population for Development, Unity, Progress and Self Reliance. }_��\'�̇\���?���Ö����8�j0�4�t�����&V�yc'!f������)^�=�OՒ��z 25 0 obj ETHIOPIA. 14 0 obj Population Policy aimed at reducing the country’s high population growth rate which in 1960-1970 was 2.4% per annum. )�Sh��Q���]�b�æ��A�nnfwfu*�����&�)��"��XB��"������RG�{�hJ�F�"�W�=�q���=)N����@qUU̧�f��1Lf���"�`�m�c` As this is only a bachelor thesis I focus on a model with Progress. endobj 6 0 obj <> Over time the Government has developed a number of population policies, strategies and programmes to address population management challenges. (National Population Policy of Ethiopia, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, Office of the Prime Minister, April 1993.) Certain ethnic minorities were exempted from the restrictions. The Population Policy 2004 aimed to achieve eplacement Level Fertility and et N R Reproduction Rate (NRR) = 1 by the year 2010. What is visual communication and why it matters; Nov. 20, 2020. 9: 0 Reviews. As this is only a bachelor thesis I focus on a model with simplifying assumptions. Both these statements were tabled in the parliament but were never discussed or adopted. World Population Policies 1976-2015 . Targets of National Population Policy 3. 4 0 obj <>/F 4/A<>/StructParent 2>> Strengthening family-planning services is crucial to slowing population growth, now 78 million annually, and limiting population size to 9.2 billion by 2050. population policies and related indicators between 1976 and 2013 for all 193 Member States, two Observer States and two non-member States of the United Nations. They claim that limited living and land resources as a result of overpopulation lead to poor education, environmental hazards, poor medical care, and a low quality of life for the population. National Population Policy of April 1993. stream comprehensive population policy in 1969, under the theme “Population Planning for National Progress and Prosperity” (Republic of Ghana, 1969). 2 0 obj x��S]k�@|?����R�����]��VB�$-!�! Zimbabwe National Population Policy. /Parent 4 0 R>> endobj From inside the book . <> population policies, the government has realized that national development aspi-rations can be seriously hampered or de-layed by rapid population growth. x���A�@����YȝUw�R#E��"*,2�?�I��d`3����k[�#�C�g�HŰ��"��pv�p�L�� PDF | This paper examined Nigeria’s Population Policies of 1988 and 2004. ADVERTISEMENTS: Population Policy of India! <> Introduction: A positive population policy which aims at reducing the birth rate and ultimately stabilising the growth rate of population. endobj endobj 2 0 obj endobj Download Japan Population Control Policy doc. The policy aspired toachieve reductions in fertility (four children per woman by 2000), the proportion of early marriages, the population growth rate, and infant mortalityby expand ing coverage of family planning (FP) services and family life education across the country. 6. The Population Policy 2004 aimed to achieve eplacement Level Fertility and et N R Reproduction Rate (NRR) = 1 by the year 2010. <> ",#(7),01444'9=82. The previous policy of "late, ;:��5�U�&>o�^� Pd[� >��@JXZT F���rͦ"u6�k#|���~zY��d�8���H��;/s�ݽ|�H|j�Vw�ϼ�0�O�8 ���K�ǫA[PDR@�i�D*b)��9��K�V��& �s���ub �d5! Population policy may be single purpose like reducing crude birth rate by 20 per 1000 or it could be multifaceted like 24 0 obj National Population Policy-2000,India aims at Short Term : fulfill unmet need for contraception,strengthening the health infrastructure, integratingthe services for Reproductive and Child Health. endstream ���� JFIF ` ` �� ZExif MM * J Q Q �Q � �� ���� C Motivational and Promotional Measures 6. The strict one-child policy only applied to 36 percent of the population. <> More than half the families were allowed to have a second child if their first baby was a girl. 28 0 obj 27 0 obj The 1969 Population Policy aimed at reducing the country’s high population growth rate which in 1960-1970 was 2.4% per annum. The development of the new national population policy commenced in June 1994, when the South African Government of National Unity initiated a review of the population policy adopted during the apartheid era as well as the functions of the population units at national and provincial levels. The population target of 1.2 million by 2000 has been reached; it is estimated the policy prevented 200-300 million births The total fertility rate decreased from 2.9 in 1979 to 1.7 in 2004 (1.3 in urban areas and 2.0 in rural areas) Question: what is the counterfactual? endobj /Contents 25 0 R <> Zimbabwe National Population Policy. 12 0 obj endobj National Economic Planning Commission, Government of Zimbabwe, 1998 - South Africa - 76 pages. endobj 3. what extent have these policies increased the ratio of working-age to nonworking-age population, and the economic growth in China? <> endobj Gratitude in the workplace: How gratitude can improve your well-being and relationships %���� Population Policy and Demographic Analysis. A population policy is a policy that a country engages in in order to get its population to a level that it feels is optimal for it. Experience over the last couple of decades in Ethiopia has shown that as human numbers increased, the population carrying capacity of the environment decreased. Military doctor in population control by the couple has the ban Join with ackerman, and the disease and feel less privileged backgrounds made for visiting nature. China’s one child policy – See Factsheet No. China argues in support of its population policy, saying that to become prosperous, China must curb its population growth. [ 11 0 R] Iain Bell, Director General of Population and Public Policy, ONS. It may involve efforts: • to reduce population growth (e.g. Of particular concern are the 80 million annual pregnancies (38% of all pregnancies) that are unintended. endstream �K:�����t)���&�L�SNȚR�Cj�� ؍yA�B��+��]�FK �s.-�mN�# �G���h���Κ�/��"J����w����c����Ko[�GO���ڳ�I����h@=v{|��@E���; �eYظ��?F���9��*KbqBr��/8���?J/;��c�_��r�������V�UC���O8z��*8���-L�>�ş)��F���Ԁ���d}��n�xܕEo��JD�����C��Pu���x���tB�t:FS���D�:s��H���V����a�I��f�5V/w �/�JR��$M���9��������� After years of implementation, the 1969 Policy was reviewed to address challenges that inhibited its effective implementation in addition to incorporating new and emerging issues that hitherto did not exist. Opposite of the condom for their opposition to. Certain ethnic minorities were exempted from the restrictions. �{wӃt�jK1�p��q����P�Ve! Photo Credit: Population Council Recent changes in population structures can have a major impact on human welfare and the environment. 0 Reviews. The overall goal of this National Population Policy is to contribute to the improvement of the standards of living and quality of life of the people of Malawi. R. 4 Population & Housing Census, Preliminary Results- July 2011. Policy on Population for Development, Unity, Progress and Self Reliance. %PDF-1.7 What is visual communication and why it matters; Nov. 20, 2020. It pinpointed on the policies issues, challenges and prospects. 9: POPULATION PROFILE . x��X�n�6}��CQP��! Many developing countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, continue to face rapid population growth and other barriers to social and economic development. $.' 1: RATIONALE . Evaluation 8. Following are the highlights of the 4 0 obj Photo Credit: Population Council Recent changes in population structures can have a major impact on human welfare and the environment. 2. <> population policy were to be congratulated on that clear evidence of their success. 19: 3 other sections not shown. <>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 960 540] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> endobj But considering the present eplacement . Policy statement on family welfare program was also prepared in 1977. Population Policies Definition: Population policies to influence population growth and distribution involve a wide range of decisions and actions by governments, both direct and indirect, which influence individual and family decisions regarding marriage and childbearing, working arrangements, place of residence, etc. /MediaBox [0 0 612 792] endobj In India, where the majority of people are illiterate, fatalist, and custom-ridden, and do not believe in family planning, only the government’s initiative can help in controlling population growth. Population policy is a strategy for achieving a particular pattern of population change. Common terms and phrases. 10 0 obj endobj 21 0 obj In India, where the majority of people are illiterate, fatalist, and custom-ridden, and do not believe in family planning, only the government’s initiative can help in controlling population growth. endobj :��i�R�Ȯ���Op-z��gd���H\Q�6��xS�dG����;I����TsH�����?#$f�Q��+�水�3���'L5��?�[���{c`� �D��|k��ڟ���d [l�TW_y�*Өݪ�ȋ��E�! Many developing countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, continue to face rapid population growth and other barriers to social and economic development. After years of implementation, the <> Introduction: A positive population policy which aims at reducing the birth rate and ultimately stabilising the growth rate of population. 6 0 obj stream /Font <>>> 16 0 obj ��g���o~�e��]���?W�ę� �e� DI����ǩ�n�r� ��b �>c�p�d�P���@�X��y`�j��ƀ�J�pV 2This intellectual attitude is partly inspired by the success of population policies put in place between 1960 and 1980, at that time in the form of family-planning programs (in 1960 the global population was three billion people). Population policies are primarily a response to the anticipated consequences of fertility and mortality, and secondarily to internal and international migration that also modify the size, age composition, and regional distribution of the population. Population policy is a strategy for achieving a particular pattern of population change. endobj More than half the families were allowed to have a second child if their first baby was a girl. We haven't found any reviews in the usual places. endobj Blog. Fertility Patterns across Time and Space The world’s total fertility rate declined from over 5.0 children per woman in 1960 to 2.5 children per woman in 2013.1 This trend is not driven by just a few countries. population-control policies implemented in developing countries are likely to have played a central role in the global decline in fertility rates in recent decades, and can explain some patterns of that fertility decline that are not well accounted for by other socioeconomic factors. In Section 3 I will discuss in detail the population-control policies and demographic transition in China. <>/Metadata 396 0 R/ViewerPreferences 397 0 R>> <> endobj Population policy PRAVIN VISARIA INDIA, the second most populous country of the world, with more than a billion persons by 11 May 2000 (according to preliminary results of the 2001 Census, India counted 1.027 billion people on 1 March 2001), was the first to initiate a government policy of [ 20 0 R] 9 0 obj 55 - Population Policy in China) • to reduce the infant mortality rate • to influence the distribution of population, i.e. endobj National Socio-Demographic Goals for 2010 4. Population Policy. endobj 3 0 obj 5 0 obj Increased immigration levels due to increased talent levels. 8 0 obj From inside the book . endobj John F. May, a Belgian national, is a Lead Demographer at the World Bank, and a specialist in population policies and programs.Prior to joining the World Bank in 1997, he worked on many population projects around the world for UNFPA, UNICEF, USAID, and the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population (IUSSP). The previous policy of "late, Today, more than half of all developing countries have national population policies, and about 130 national governments subsidize family planning services. endobj From: Handbook of Development Economics, 2010. Zimbabwe National Population Policy. `�b-���A8�R�ϾE!�f�h��%%[�o�N�l�*%��o�s��B�R��5����og>3��D���'Ia،�@�+4���s�ڧ9l(��gM� Proportion of permanent citizens increased from 74% to 82% from 2000 to 2009. The population policy now compels us to take the consensus reached at that conference to the community and family levels. Types of Population Policies Explicit : Document by a nationalgovernment announcing its intention toaffect the population growth andcomposition Implicit : Directives not necessarily issuedto influence the population growth andcomposition but may have the effect ofdoing so.ShivChandra,2001www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com Download Japan Population Control Policy pdf. ~TIONAL POPULATION POLICY Trends of population gr-h in Jagaica will be among the important determining the qua1 ity of- life of its cf tizens. From inside the book . endobj According to Greenhalgh (2003), the one-child policy has averted 300 million births since its introduction in 1979-80. policy also supports the implementation of various sectoral national policies addressing issues related to population dynamics. The book reviews also the situation of the developed countries and their specific challenges – sub-replacement fertility, population aging, and immigration – and examines the effectiveness of population policies. Contents. x�Ś]�$W�KQb��0��_dH��͓�4Y�0B'DVYtWh��u�,�T ��ڰ�զI�G�,�X$k�2N���@�̆�Y�b��2&P���9�����n��Yj�o�:��������UuiFQUQVt��=ܜ}r��So�}�� >�~��ϊ��D/{�#�����'�~�>���|~j�Q����4o'9�{W��~����a�x���R��7�2��cI��喯����v-���u����� h>v�ʓ�oI.��K�{����w�vu��;�EY���b��/?�����{��Wg� 6�x��`�׉3��J��t'a_�[.��~^��GϿ��滱�_v/�mѐ��v ���� ��?rb���~4ܝ� /���T The strict one-child policy only applied to 36 percent of the population. population policies, the government has realized that national development aspi-rations can be seriously hampered or de-layed by rapid population growth. 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